(Solved) Question: Finance, Accounting and Marketing in Health Care Module Code: MOD001787


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Question:

Finance, Accounting and Marketing in Health Care

Module Code: MOD001787

Contents

1. Key Information. 2

2. Introduction to the Module. 3

3. Attendance. 4

4. Learning Outcomes and Outline Delivery. 4

5. Assessment. 6

6. How is My Work Marked?. 10

7. Assessment Criteria and Marking Standards. 13

8. Assessment Offences. 19

9. Learning Resources. 25

9.1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Library. 25

9.2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Other Resources. 26

10. Module Evaluation. 26

11. Report on Last Delivery of Module. 27

Dear Student,

Welcome to the module Finance, Accounting and Marketing in Health Care.

This guide has been constructed to give you important information on the module, assessment and module-related rules and regulations.

The module is assessed by way of a written assignment and a copy of the marking scheme can be found later on in this document. You will be given written feedback on your assessment as part of our commitment to support your learning, and it is important you are able to use this feedback to support your academic development. If you are unsure of how to make the most of this feedback and act on the support and suggestions given, please contact me.

Having read the guidance that follows on the next pages, if you have any questions, please contact me and I will be happy to clarify.

Finally, may I wish you every success on this module and I look forward to working with you.

John Rayment

1. Key Information

Module Title: Finance, Accounting and Marketing in Health Care

Module Leader: John Rayment

Mobile: 07454 745438

e-mail: john.rayment@anglia.ac.uk

Module Tutors: John Rayment

Every module has a Module Definition Form (MDF) which is the officially validated record of the module. You can access the MDF for this module in three ways via:

· the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

· the My.Anglia Module Catalogue at www.anglia.ac.uk/modulecatalogue

· Anglia Ruskin’s module search engine facility at www.anglia.ac.uk/modules

All modules delivered by Anglia Ruskin University at its main campuses in the UK and at Associate Colleges throughout the UK and overseas are governed by the Academic Regulations. You can view these at www.anglia.ac.uk/academicregs. An extract of the Academic Regulations, known as the Assessment Regulations, is available at this website too (all new students will have received a printed copy as part of their welcome pack).

In the unlikely event of any discrepancy between the Academic Regulations and any other publication, including this module guide, the Academic Regulations, as the definitive document, take precedence over all other publications and will be applied in all cases.

2. Introduction to the Module

Finance, accounting and marketing are business skills which are increasingly importance throughout health care and a fundamental requirement of all senior managers, leaders and decision makers within the sector.

This module examines these areas from both traditional approaches used in the private and public sectors and contemporary approaches including those relevant to third sector health care provision and to negotiating with other health care providers.

Whilst the module considers published financial reporting its focus is those strategic financial and marketing issues faced by health care managers: pricing and contract negotiation, budgeting and budgetary control and financial and marketing decision making.

The module combines numerical and qualitative data to draw out the integrative nature of finance and marketing within an operational setting. This is set in the overall framework of Strategic Management.

Participants are taught techniques for making revenue and capital decisions, emphasis being given to critical evaluation of the outcomes.

The module will be assessed by submission of a report of no more than 6,000 words which considers the development, design and delivery of financial and marketing strategy.

Formative assessment will take place by students being required to co-share on assignment progress through a group presentation.

The module is relevant to all Masters level students involved with public and / or third sector organisations. It gives students the skills and knowledge necessary to develop their prowess as a senior manager in such organisations.

Service User Statement for All Modules / Courses

Understanding the perspectives of service users and their carers is central to the development of Medical Sciences’ professionals studying on our courses. Evidence exists to demonstrate that the involvement of service users and their carer’s, and our Medical Science students, has had a positive impact in three key areas:

Students’ understanding of the service user / carer perspective

Students’ communication skills

Students’ motivation to improve services (Morgan & Jones 2009).

The Faculty of Medical Science is committed to the involvement of service users and their carer’s, and our Medical Science students. This module will provide the opportunity to engage with the experiences and perspectives of service users and their carers.

Professional Values

In your chosen profession within the Faculty of Medical Science there is a core set of professional values at the heart of practice. These values embrace an ethical and moral code and should guide you in supporting people in overcoming the challenges that life and/ or society places on them. These professions will frequently place you in a position of having to make ethical decisions regarding what, in a moral sense, is the right thing to do. These decisions are central to students within the Faculty of Medical Science, as all the students in the Faculty are engaged in activities that have an impact on people’s lives. In your chosen profession you are expected to perform a role for the benefit of others (these could be patients, service users, school children, clients or the general public) who need to know what to expect in terms of what can be offered and in terms of standards of conduct. Professionalism is something to be admired and emulated, it is not just a skill or competence, it is about setting aside your own personal feelings and interests and putting others first. In the FMS all modules will promote the development of professional individuals who are committed to fulfilling their role.

3. Attendance

Attending all your classes is very important and one of the best ways to help you succeed in this module. In accordance with the Student Charter, you are expected to arrive on time and take an active part in all your timetabled classes. If you are unable to attend a class for a valid reason (e.g. illness), please contact your Module Tutor.

Anglia Ruskin will closely monitor the attendance of all students and will contact you by e-mail if you have been absent without notice for two weeks. Continued absence can result in various consequences including termination of your registration as you will be considered to have withdrawn from your studies.

International students who are non-EEA nationals and in possession of entry clearance/leave to remain as a student (Tier 4 student visa) are required to be in regular attendance at Anglia Ruskin. Failure to do so is considered to be a breach of national immigration regulations. Failure to do so will have serious implications for your immigration status in the UK. Anglia Ruskin, like all British Universities, is statutorily obliged to inform UK Visa & Immigration (Home Office) of significant unauthorised absences by any student visa holders.

4. Learning Outcomes and Outline Delivery

Anglia Ruskin modules are taught on the basis of intended learning outcomes (ILOs) and on successful completion of the module, students will be expected to be able to demonstrate they have met those outcomes.

The relevant ILOs for this module are as follows (extracted from the module definition form)

Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this module the student will be expected to be able to:
Knowledge and understanding 1. Critically evaluate the wider implications of local and national financial and marketing decisions upon health care organisations

2. Critically evaluate the content and management of service contracts.

Intellectual, practical, affective and transferable skills 3. Critically evaluate the role of budgets and budgetary control within a health care context

4 Critically review the interaction of financial and marketing decision-making processes within a health care setting.

5. Apply the concepts of short run decision making to a potential scenario

6 Examine through synthesis, the concept of contract negotiation and management

.

These learning outcomes can be understood in the following ways:

1. Critically evaluate the wider implications of local and national financial and marketing decisions upon health care organisations

An organisation may have to change its policies, approaches and standards due to the ramifications of decisions taken at a higher level and/or by other organisations. For example, the total spending on health care may be restricted by government cutbacks.

2. Critically evaluate the content and management of service contracts.

Service contracts need, inter alia, to cover the volume, timing, minimum standards, performance measurement and cost of each service. Implementation may depend on information from and actions of other organisations or individuals. All of these factors may change during the life of the contract making their management a difficult task often requiring flexibility and compromise which may not be in line with the organisation’s or individual manager’s ethos.

3. Critically evaluate the role of budgets and budgetary control within a health care context

Demand for, expectations of and cost of health care are constantly rising due to such factors as the aging population. At the same time, total finance may be squeezed. This means there is constant pressure to plan, coordinate, control and review the use of resources to optimise health levels.

4 Critically review the interaction of financial and marketing decision-making processes within a health care setting.

The traditional (private sector) role of marketing is to encourage customers to use a particular product or service, thereby increasing the revenue and hopefully profit of the organisation. In health care, total finance is constrained thus marketing must have the objective of moving clients towards more cost-effective forms of care. One common approach is to encourage people to ‘take care of themselves’ at minimal cost to the health care service (say, paying for gym fees) but with great potential savings in treatment cost. Conflict may arise where the additional cost may fall on one organisation / budget but the savings go to another – how can we encourage overall ‘value for money’?

5. Apply the concepts of short run decision making to a potential scenario

In the short run, many costs are fixed e.g. in an operating theatre. If we ran an extra session in the theatre, the additional costs may be relatively small (staff and consumables) and it may be possible to reduce the waiting list.

6 Examine through synthesis, the concept of contract negotiation and its management

ILO 2 examines content and management of service contracts. When agreeing the elements outlined there, the various parties need to ensure they are able to fulfil their part of the contract at acceptable cost to themselves. In the private sector there may be strong temptation to exploit any weaknesses in your opponent’s position or market opportunities that may arise but even there, in addition to any ethical considerations, the need for good long-term relationships should be borne in mind. In the public sector, we are all on the same side (are we?!) so should be looking for all-round optimisation. In the case studies covered in the module, how do these factors play out?

Outline Delivery

Session Topic
1 Introduction: Roles of Finance, Accounting and Marketing in Health Care; Link to Strategic Management; Sustainability; Decision types / making
2 Finance 1 – Scope, scale and structure: published accounts; revenue, cash and balances.
3 Marketing 1: Fundamentals; Public Sector Aspects
4 Finance 2: Investment Appraisal and the Private Finance Initiative
5 Marketing 2: Internal trading; contract negotiation; role plays
6 Addenbrookes v Broomfield Case Study
7 Strategic Management – Malthus’ cake; Priorities and Issues;

Assignment Guidance

8 Management accounting: Purpose; Marginal Costing; Activity-based Costing
9 Pricing and Charging
10 Budgeting, Budgetary Control and Performance Measurement
11 Modern Approaches: Business Process Re-engineering; Value Analysis
12 Module Summary; Group Presentations

5. Assessment

Assessment is by way of the following assignment.

Prepare a report answering the following question:

“How can finance, accounting and marketing assist in the creation of a sustainable health care system in your chosen health economy?”

Your report should be a maximum of 6,000 words and demonstrate achievement of the module learning outcomes. Further guidance will be given during the module but an outline of general expectations for this assignment follows:

The assignment topic was made deliberately wide to give students scope to look at a real issue of interest to them. This means a broad range of approaches, styles & foci are expected and accepted. The following is an outline of likely content.

There is a strict word limit of 6,000 and the fact that many students are not currently employed so unlikely to have access to 'management' information (others may not feel willing / able to use it) must be allowed for in expectations. Nevertheless considerable use of quality reference sources is expected at Master's level.

An outline of the 'health economy' being studied should be provided. Location, scale, history, culture, current performance and how 'sustainable' (meaning should be discussed), known issues, either selecting one to be studied or clearly adopting a high level strategic approach.

Applying a decision making model (eg ASK SIR L) and / or a business strategy one (eg SWOT, Porter's generic strategies, Bowman’s strategy clock) would be useful.

Discussion of general roles and meanings of 'finance, accounting and marketing' possibly starting with the traditional 'private sector' aspects but must have strong 'public sector' slant and content. Similarities / differences between the sectors may be relevant eg 'provider' role has many attributes of private sector, both are looking for VFM and to achieve performance within budget but private sector more focused on 'bottom line'.

Finance is sources and uses of money and should consider certainty and timings, economy, efficiency and effectiveness, 'Income Statement', 'List of Balances' and cash flow.

Accounting is record keeping including an audit trail and financial information system which helps managers take valid short and long term decisions and carry out such techniques as investment appraisal and cost-volume-profit analysis.

Marketing in the private sector is usually aimed at increasing sales by ensuring customers are aware of products / services and their 'value' (from the customer’s viewpoint! customer value proposition); anticipating and meeting customer needs; but must be profitable so close links to costing.

Public sector looks to optimise service level with available money. Budget is capped. De-marketing may be important ie discouraging excessive / unnecessary use.

Other relevant differences should be discussed eg who pays? treatment of difficult / expensive customers; who makes decisions? how?

The above may cover say half the assignment, concluding by pulling it together into a problem statement. The remainder of the assignment should tackle the identified problem by generating solutions, selecting a viable package and considering implementation, then drawing the whole thing together with relevant conclusions and recommendations. These will be tenuous for those students unable to obtain detailed, specific information.

This is an INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT, so must be original and unique – copying and colluding beyond that required for the formative group presentation would be penalised.

The assignment must be submitted by 2pm (GMT) Tuesday 5th May 2015.

You are required to submit your final assignment via Turnitin GradeMark

To check your draft (formative) assignment there will be a class section called ‘Check Originality Report’ (COR) set up in your Turnitin account. You will be able to submit to the Check Originality Report section as many times as you wish and it will be available throughout your studiesThis resource is also a useful tool to share with your module leader or tutor. You can download your originality report as a PDF file and email it to your tutor, print the originality report and bring it to the tutorial, or log into Turnitin whilst in the tutorial to show and discuss your work.

IMPORTANT NOTICE

YOU ONLY HAVE ONE OPPORTUNITY TO SUBMIT YOUR SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TO YOUR MODULE CLASS.

On the class page is the start date, the due date and time for your assignment and the date that your results will be available. Please remember that you must submit your assignment before the cut off time on your due date, leaving submission to the last minute is not recommendedThis time is Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) adjusted for daylight savings, so please work out, in advance, any local time difference.

If you upload your draft work by mistake to your summative module class, this will not be removed. If you submit your summative assessment to the COR class, it will be viewed as a non-submission and recorded as a fail. Neither are subject to mitigation or academic appeal.

If you are not successful in your first attempt and are required to resubmit, any subsequent submissions are also to be electronically submitted via Turnitin GradeMark and a new assignment class will be set up for you to use.

More detailed information on using Turnitin Grademark is available on the Faculty’s VLE, at https://vle.anglia.ac.uk/sites/2012/grademark

Any work submitted to the wrong section of Turnitin Grademark will be seen as a non submission and be given a mark of zero.

You are requested to keep a copy of your work.

Feedback

You are entitled to feedback on your performance for all your assessed work. For all assessment tasks which are not examinations, this is accomplished by a member of academic staff providing your mark and associated comments which will relate to the achievement of the module’s intended learning outcomes and the assessment criteria you were given for the task when it was first issued. This feedback will be available on-line via Grademark® or may be sent directly to your Anglia Ruskin e-mail account.

Examination scripts are retained by Anglia Ruskin and are not returned to students. However, you are entitled to feedback on your performance in an examination and may request a meeting with the Module Leader or Tutor to see your examination script and to discuss your performance.

Anglia Ruskin is committed to providing you with feedback on all assessed work within 20 working days of the submission deadline or the date of an examination. This is extended to 30 days for feedback for a Major Project module (please note that working days excludes those days when Anglia Ruskin University is officially closed; e.g. between Christmas and New Year). Personal tutors will offer to read feedback from several modules and help you to address any common themes that may be emerging.

On occasion, you will receive feedback and marks for pieces of work that you completed in the earlier stages of the module. We provide you with this feedback as part of the learning experience and to help you prepare for other assessment tasks that you have still to complete. It is important to note that, in these cases, the marks for these pieces of work are unconfirmedThis means that, potentially, marks can change, in either direction!

Marks for modules and individual pieces of work become confirmed on the Dates for the Official Publication of Results which can be checked at www.anglia.ac.uk/results.

6. How is My Work Marked?

After you have handed your work in or you have completed an examination, Anglia Ruskin undertakes a series of activities to assure that our marking processes are comparable with those employed at other universities in the UK and that your work has been marked fairly, honestly and consistently. These include:

· Anonymous marking – your name is not attached to your work so, at the point of marking, the lecturer does not know whose work he/she is considering. When you undertake an assessment task where your identity is known (e.g. a presentation or Major Project), it is marked by more than one lecturer (known as double marking)

· Internal moderation – a sample of all work for each assessment task in each module is moderated by other Anglia Ruskin staff to check the standards and consistency of the marking

· External moderation – a sample of student work for all modules is moderated by external examiners – experienced academic staff from other universities (and sometimes practitioners who represent relevant professions) – who scrutinise your work and provide Anglia Ruskin academic staff with feedback, advice and assurance that the marking of your work is comparable to that in other UK universities. Many of Anglia Ruskin’s staff act as external examiners at other universities.

· Departmental Assessment Panel (DAP) – performance by all students on all modules is discussed and approved at the appropriate DAPs which are attended by all relevant Module Leaders and external examiners. Anglia Ruskin has over 25 DAPs to cover all the different subjects we teach.

This module falls within the remit of the Allied Health Departmental Assessment Panel.

The following external examiners are appointed to this DAP and will oversee the assessment of this and other modules within the DAP’s remit:

External Examiner’s Name Academic Institution Position or Employer
Dr Paula Fletcher Retired
Dr Romana Kuchai None (practitioner) Consultant ENT Surgeon
Mr Niri Niranjan None (practitioner) Consultant Surgeon
Dr Stephen Sandler British School of Osteopathy Senior Lecturer
Prof Andrew Smith University of Glasgow Professor of Clinical Bacteriology
Mr John Tarrant Bournemouth University Senior Lecturer
Mrs Tracey Williams University of Central

Lancashire

Senior Lecturer
Dr Des Winter St Vincent's University Hospital Consultant Surgeon

The above list is correct at the time of publication. However, external examiners are appointed at various points throughout the year. An up-to-date list of external examiners is available to students and staff at www.anglia.ac.uk/eeinfo.

Anglia Ruskin’s marking process is represented in the flowchart below:

7. Assessment Criteria and Marking Standards

Answer

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